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Which is not a characteristic of fungi?

Here you can find the best answer and explanation to the question “Which is not a characteristic of fungi?” as well as thorough details on “What are the characteristics of fungi?”

Q. Which is not a characteristic of fungi?

A. They can be parasites.

B. Holozoic nutrition.

C. Absorptive nutrition.

D. They can be mutualists.

Answer: B. Holozoic nutrition.

Which is not a characteristic of fungi?


A. They can be parasites:

Yes, fungi can be parasites that colonize animal or plant cells and exploit host nutrients, causing life-threatening diseases. In the case of plants, fungi drastically reduce the overall plant yield. There are several diseases diagnosed in animals that are caused by fungal colonization, including Histoplasmosis, Aspergillosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, tinea corporis, Onychomycosis, Blastomycosis, Candidiasis, Coccidioidomycosis, eye infection, etc.

B. Holozoic Nutrition:

No, this type of nutrition is not possible by fungal organisms. Animals (such as amoeba) engulf (internalization) complex solid or liquid forms of food from the outside and then digest them into smaller molecules through holozoic nutrition. In the case of fungi, the complex molecules cannot pass through the cell membrane; instead, they are just digested outside by digestion enzymes secreted by fungi and later absorbed by fungi through the hype.

Image: Holozoic nutrition in amoeba (not possible in fungi)

C. Absorptive nutrition:
Yes, fungi perform absorptive nutrition, in which fungal cells secrete extracellular enzymes into the substrate and digest them into small, easily assimilated molecules that are later absorbed through the fungal cell membrane through the hype.

Absorptive nutrition
Image: Absorptive Nutrition in Fungi

D. They can be mutualists: 

Yes, fungi can establish a mutualistic relationship with other fungi or distinct living organisms. For instance, 1) mycorrhiza is a type of fungi that exhibits a symbiotic relationship with plants in the rhizosphere region.  2) lichen is a type of symbiotic structure formed by the combination of photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria, autotrophs) and heterotropic fungi, which is mostly found on rocks and barks. 3) endophytic fungi colonize the plant tissue and provide PGPR properties to the plants.

What are the characteristics of fungi?

  1. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms, however, some are microscopic unicellular yeasts, while other fungi are massive, intricate toadstools.
  2. The macroscopic fungi including mold and mushrooms are visible to the unaided eye.
  3. In comparison to bacteria, fungi grow more slowly.
  4. The majority of saprophytic fungi need a temperature of 20–30 °C to grow optimally, whereas parasitic fungal cells need a temperature of 30–37 °C.
  5. When conditions are acidic (have a low pH), fungi grow significantly.
  6. Although fungi are responsible for some fatal conditions in humans, only about 300 species of fungi can infect people.
  7. Due to the fact that they are eukaryotic organisms, fungi have a true nucleus that is protected by membranes.
  8. These organisms are heterotrophic, non-vascular, and non-motile.
  9. They could appear or survive like filaments or just one cell.
  10. Yeasts are fungi with only one cell and no hyphae.
  11. In order to reproduce, fungi can produce and disperse spores.
  12. Fungi exhibit the generational alternation phenomenon, which indicates that they have both haploid and diploid phases.
  13. Since fungi lack chlorophyll, they are unable to perform photosynthesis.
  14. In contrast to plants, fungi don’t contain conducting tissues. But similar to plants, fungi have cell walls.
  15. Although the fungi’s cell wall shares a structural similarity with plant cell walls, it differs chemically in that it is made of chitin (C8H13O5N)n.
  16. The vascular system, which is made up of both xylem and phloem, is completely absent in them.
  17. Contrary to many other organisms, fungi do not have an embryonic stage of development.
  18. Instead, they produce spores that can quickly develop into hyphae; there is no intermediate juvenile or embryonic stage between the spores and the adults.
  19. Both asexual and sexual spores are present throughout the fungal life cycle.
  20. Ascospores, oospores, zygospores, basidiospores, etc. are examples of sexual spores, while zoospores, sporangiospores, aplanospores, conidia, etc. are examples of asexual spores.
  21. Exoenzymes are released by fungi from the hyphae where they are used to break down environmental nutrients.
  22. The mycelium’s substantial surface area allows fungi to absorb the smaller molecules generated by extracellular digestion by exoenzymes like hydrolases, transferase, lyases, oxidoreductase, etc
  23. In the fungal life cycle, an anamorph (mold-like structure) describes the asexual state, while a teleomorph (fruiting body) refers to the sexual state.
  24. Fungi reproduce sexually (teleomorphic) and asexually (anamorphic). Somatic fission, asexual spore formation, fragmentation, and somatic budding are examples of asexual methods. Gamete-gametangium copulation, somatic copulation, gametic copulation, gametangium copulation, and spermatization are all sexual methods.
  25. A chemical compound called pheromone secreted by fungi facilitates sexual reproduction between male and female fungal cells.
  26. In the case of the fungal cell cycle, the nuclear envelope is not broken down during mitosis.

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