A major side effect that stress can cause on the gastrointestinal system is?
1. Reduced levels of gastrin, leading to constipation
2. Reduced levels of cortisol, causing weight loss
3. Increased levels of gastrin, causing stomach ulcers
4. Increased levels of cortisol, causing over-eating
Answer: 4 (Increased levels of cortisol, causing over-eating)
Explanation: The adrenal gland secrets a hormone called cortisol. Elevated levels of cortisol in the body could negatively impact several functions of the body and have a significant effect on many systems of the body, especially the digestive system. In general, cortisol increases appetite and may also increase motivation, including the motivation to consume more food.
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